Adam - Origins and the First Covenant
The first mention of Adam having been created from dust is in a revelation about Jesus having been created from the same substance.
3:59 Jesus in Allah’s sight is like Adam; He created him from dust, then He said to him: “Be”, and there he was.
It all started with dust and now you find man everywhere. And let’s not forget women which He created for men, from men (“for you, from yourselves” revelation 30:21).
30:20 And of His Signs is that He created you from dust; and behold, you are mortals scattered around.
30:21 And of His Signs is that He created for you, from yourselves, spouses to settle down with and He established friendship and mercy between you. There are in all that signs for a people who reflect.
Job 9:10 Please remember that You formed me like clay. Will You now return me to dust?
Earlier on in His Koran (but not before the mention of dust), Allah reveals that He created the first human from clay.
6:2 It is He Who created you from clay, then decreed a term [for you] and another set term with Him, but still you doubt.
In Paradise Lost II and V we gave you verses, revelations 7:12 and 38:76 respectively, where Satan a.k.a. Iblis refuses to bow down to Adam because Adam was created from clay. He will still refuse to bow down even after Allah explains that it was not ordinary clay but potter’s clay moulded out of slime, and like in Genesis, it is Allah's exhalation upon His creation which brings it to life.
15:26 And We have created man from potter’s clay, moulded out of slime.
15:27 And the jinn We created before that from blazing fire.
15:28 When your Lord said to the angels: “Behold, I have created a man from potter’s clay, out of moulded slime.
15:29 “When I have fashioned him and breathed into him of My Spirit, fall down prostrating yourselves to him.”
Satan himself will bear witness to Adam’s clay origins.
15:30 The angels prostrated themselves, altogether;
15:31 Except Satan who refused to be one of those who prostrated themselves.
15:32 He said: “O Satan, what keeps you from being one of those who prostrate themselves?”
15:33 He said; “I refuse to prostrate myself before a mortal you created from potter’s clay out of moulded slime.”
15:34 He said: “Get out of here, then, for you are surely accursed.
15:35 “And the curse shall be upon you till the Day of Judgement.”
15:36 He said: “My Lord, reprieve me till the Day of Resurrection.”
15:37 He said: “You are indeed one of those reprieved,
15:38 “Till the Appointed Day.”
15:39 [Satan] said: “My Lord, since you misguided me, I will make what is foul on earth seem fair to them, and I shall mislead them all,
15:40 “Except for Your sincere servants among them.”
15:41 He (Allah) said: “This is my Straight Path.
15:42 “Over My servants you have no authority, except for those sinners who follow you."
Allah may have let the potter’s clay harden into the consistency of bricks before putting Adam together like a bricklayer would, or carving him. Moulding clay as hard as brick, for a god as powerful as Allah, would have been easy to do.
55:14 He created man from hard clay, like bricks.
The best evidence available that it was clay.
32:6 That is the Knower of the Unseen and the Seen, the All-Mighty, the Merciful.
32:7 Who fashioned well everything He created, and originated the creation of man from clay.
Allah's Covenant with Adam and His Progeny
17:70 We have honoured the Children of Adam and carried them on land and sea, provided them with good things and preferred them greatly over many of those We have created.
Allah’s first mention of an agreement between a god and his supplicants, a covenant, occurs early on in the Koran.
2:27 Those who break Allah’s Covenant after its confirmation and sever what Allah ordered to be joined, and make mischief (committing sins and obstructing faith) in the land – those are the losers.
His first covenant was with Adam’s progeny and, according to the Prophet, with Adam himself, at a place called Na'maan on the day of Arafah (the ninth day of Dhul-Hijjah, the 12th and final month of the Islamic calendar).
In a nutshell, Allah’s Covenant with Adam and his descendants is a promise Allah extracted from the first human and all his posterity that they would worship Him and only Him and believe in His Revelations, the last and final set being the Koran.
The actual Covenant, and the why and the wherefore of such an agreement is revealed in the Meccan surah, The Ramparts, verses 7:172-173.
7:172 And [remember] when your Lord brought forth from the loins of the Children of Adam their posterity and made them testify against themselves. [He said]: “Am I not your Lord?” They said: “Yes, we testify.” [This] lest you should say on the Day of Resurrection: “We were in fact unaware of this.”
7:173 Or lest you should say: “Our fathers associated [other Gods with Allah] before [us] and we are their posterity. Will you destroy us for what the fabricators of falsehoods did?”
7:174 And thus We expound the revelations so that they may return (to the Truth).
Allah’s side of the bargain, which is not mentioned in this series of revelations about a covenant, is that if they worship only Him and believe in His Revelations, He will grant them Paradise.