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1,001 Sayings and Deeds of the Prophet

Prayers

How To, When, Etc.

A change of direction:

Narrated Al-Bara (bin Azib):

When the Prophet came to Medina, he stayed first with his grandfathers or maternal uncles from Ansar. He offered his prayers facing Baitul-Maqdis (Jerusalem) for sixteen or seventeen months, but he wished that he could pray facing the Ka'ba (at Mecca).

The first prayer which he offered facing the Ka'ba was the Asr prayer in the company of some people. Then one of those who had offered that prayer with him came out and passed by some people in a mosque who were bowing during their prayers (facing Jerusalem).

He said addressing them, "By Allah, I testify that I have prayed with Allah's Apostle facing Mecca (Ka'ba)."

Hearing that, those people changed their direction towards the Ka'ba immediately.

Jews and the people of the scriptures used to be pleased to see the Prophet facing Jerusalem in prayers but when he changed his direction towards the Ka'ba, during the prayers, they disapproved of it.

Al-Bara added, "Before we changed our direction towards the Ka'ba (Mecca) in prayers, some Muslims had died or had been killed and we did not know what to say about them (regarding their prayers.) Allah then revealed: And Allah would never make your faith (prayers) to be lost (i.e. the prayers of those Muslims were valid).'" (2:143).

Bukhari 2.37

How to pray properly was something the Prophet took upon himself to demonstrate after being told by God, at one time or another, how He wanted it done.

Narrated Ibn Abbas:

The Prophet said, "I have been ordered to prostrate on seven bones i.e. on the forehead along with the tip of the nose and the Prophet pointed towards his nose, both hands, both knees and the toes of both feet and not to gather the clothes or the hair."

Bukhari 12.776

Narrated Anas bin Malik:

The Prophet said, "Be straight in the prostrations and none of you should put his forearms on the ground (in the prostration) like a dog."

Bukhari 12.785

Countless hadiths recall how God’s Messenger performed this or that prayer. A hadith about how he performed three rak'as (one rak'a = one cycle of prostrations, also spelled rakat) upon declaring that “God is Great” i.e. the Takbir, which must be said on six separate occasions during a session for the prayer to be valid.

Narrated Muhammad bin Amr bin Ata:

I was sitting with some of the companions of Allah's Apostle and we were discussing about the way of praying of the Prophet.

Abu Humaid As-Saidi said, "I remember the prayer of Allah's Apostle better than any one of you. I saw him raising both his hands up to the level of the shoulders on saying the Takbir; and on bowing he placed his hands on both knees and bent his back straight, then he stood up straight from bowing till all the vertebrate took their normal positions.

In prostrations, he placed both his hands on the ground with the forearms away from the ground and away from his body, and his toes were facing the Qibla.

On sitting In the second Rak'a he sat on his left foot and propped up the right one; and in the last Rak'a he pushed his left foot forward and kept the other foot propped up and sat over the buttocks "

Bukhari 12.791

An equal time interval was observed between rituals.

Narrated Al-Bara:

The time taken by the Prophet in prostrations, bowing, and the sitting interval between the two prostrations was about the same.

Bukhari 12.783

The Prophet was very much a petty perfectionist and into controlling every detail of everyone's existence, and prayer was no exception. Allah obviously agreed with His Messenger's obsession:

Narrated An-Nu'man bin Bashir:

The Prophet said, "Straighten your rows or Allah will alter your faces."

Bukhari 11.685

You could not have straight rows if you did not have crowds and straight rows, as the Prophet reminded his followers, were an important part of a "correct prayer".

Narrated Anas bin Malik:

The Prophet said, "Straighten your rows as the straightening of rows is essential for a perfect and correct prayer."

Bukhari 11.690

And whatever you do, don't look at the sky during prayer!

Narrated Anas bin Malik:

The Prophet said, "What is wrong with those people who look towards the sky during the prayer?"

His talk grew stern while delivering this speech and he said, "They should stop (looking towards the sky during the prayer); otherwise their eye-sight would be taken away."

Bukhari 12.717

No talking!

Narrated Zaid bin Arqam:

In the lifetime of the Prophet we used to speak while praying, and one of us would tell his needs to his companions, till the verse, "Guard strictly your prayers" (2:238) was revealed. After that we were ordered to remain silent while praying.

Bukhari 22.292

Get up and give me two!

Narrated Jabir bin Abdullah:

A person entered the mosque while the Prophet was delivering the Khutba on a Friday.

The Prophet said to him, "Have you prayed?"

The man replied in the negative.

The Prophet said, "Get up and pray two Rakat."

Bukhari 13.52

Make sure your shoulders are covered!

Narrated Abu Huraira:

The Prophet said, "None of you should offer prayer in a single garment that does not cover the shoulders."

Bukhari 8.355

Narrated Abu Huraira:

Allah's Apostle said, "Whoever prays in a single garment must cross its ends (over the shoulders)."

Bukhari 8.356

Everyone has had a teacher like the Prophet. You know the one who said she had eyes in the back of her head.

Narrated Anas bin Malik:

Once the Iqama was pronounced and Allah's Apostle faced us and said, "Straighten your rows and stand closer together, for I see you from behind my back."

Bukhari 11.687

Narrated Abu Huraira:

Allah's Apostle said, "You see me facing the Qibla; but, by Allah, nothing is hidden from me regarding your bowing and submissiveness and I see you from behind my back."

Bukhari 12:708

If you must spit during prayer:

Narrated Anas:

The Prophet said, "Whenever anyone of you offers his prayer he is speaking in private to his Lord. So he should not spit to his right but under his left foot."

Qatada said, "He should not spit in front of him but to his left or under his feet."

And Shu'ba said, "He should not spit in front of him, nor to his right but to his left or under his foot."

Anas said: The Prophet said, "He should neither spit in the direction of his Qibla nor to his right but to his left or under his foot."

Bukhari 10.508

Not reciting the seven verses that make up the first chapter of the Koran as part of the prayer ritual renders a prayer meaningless.

1 Al-Fâtihah

1:1 In the Name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful,

1:2 Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds,

1:3 The Compassionate, the Merciful,

1:4 Master of the Day of Judgement,

1:5 Only You do we worship, and only You do we implore for help.

1:6. Lead us to the right path,

1:7 The path of those You have favoured Not those who have incurred Your wrath or have gone astray.

Narrated Ubada bin As-Samit:

Allah's Apostle said, "Whoever does not recite Al-Fatiha in his prayer, his prayer is invalid."

Bukhari 12.723

The first thing you should do before even thinking of sitting after entering a mosque.

Narrated Abu Qatada bin Rabi Al-Ansari:

The Prophet said, "If anyone of you enters a Mosque, he should not sit until he has offered a two-Rakat prayer."

Bukhari 21.264

Mixing it up!

Narrated Abu Huraira:

Allah's Apostle forbade two kinds of sales, two kinds of dresses, and two prayers. He forbade offering prayers after the Fajr prayer till the rising of the sun and after the Asr prayer till its setting.

He also forbade "Ishtimal-Assama" and "al-Ihtiba" in one garment in such a way that one's private parts are exposed towards the sky.

He also forbade the sales called "Munabadha" and "Mulamasa."

Bukhari 10.558

This Prophet had a fondness for odd numbers, and that extended to prayers and the number of stones he used to clean himself after answering the call of nature (see Call of Nature) to the number of dates he ate at one time.

Narrated Nafi:

Ibn Umar said, "While the Prophet was on the pulpit, a man asked him how to offer the night prayers.

He replied, 'Pray two Rakat at a time and then two and then two and so on, and if you are afraid of the dawn (the approach of the time of the Fajr prayer) pray one Rak'a and that will be the witr for all the Rakat which you have offered."

Ibn Umar said, "The last Rakat of the night prayer should be odd for the Prophet ordered it to be so."

Bukhari 8.461

Narrated Anas bin Malik:

Allah's Apostle never proceeded (for the prayer) on the Day of Id-ul-Fitr unless he had eaten some dates.

Anas also narrated: The Prophet used to eat odd number of dates.

Bukhari 15.73

Could you repeat that?

Narrated Ibn Umar:

Once a person asked Allah's Apostle about the night prayer.

Allah's Apostle replied, "The night prayer is offered as two Rakat followed by two Rakat and so on and if anyone is afraid of the approaching dawn (Fajr prayer) he should pray one Raka and this will be a Witr for all the Rakat which he has prayed before."

Nafi told that Abdullah bin Umar used to say Taslim between (the first) two Rakat and (the third) odd one in the Witr prayer, when he wanted to attend to a certain matter (during that interval between the Rakat).

Bukhari 16.105

It's pray now or pray later.

Narrated Anas:

The Prophet said, "If anyone forgets a prayer he should pray that prayer when he remembers it. There is no expiation except to pray the same." Then he recited: "Establish prayer for My (i.e. Allah's) remembrance." (20:14).

Bukhari 10.571

If you plan on having sex, or have had a nocturnal emission before the call to prayer, make sure to take a bath and avoid being impure i.e. Junub for the purpose of praying.

Narrated Abu Huraira:

Once iqama was pronounced and the people had straightened the rows, Allah's Apostle went forward (to lead the prayer) but he was Junub, so he said, "Remain in your places." And he went out, took a bath and returned with water trickling from his head. Then he led the prayer.

Bukhari 11.613

When not taking a bath is not an option, although  brushing your teeth and perfuming yourself (men only) may be optional:

Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri:

The Prophet said, "Ghusl (taking a bath) on Friday is compulsory for every Muslim reaching the age of puberty."

Bukhari 12.817

Narrated Abu Said:

I testify that Allah's Apostle said, "The taking of a bath on Friday is compulsory for every male Muslim who has attained the age of puberty and (also) the cleaning of his teeth with Siwak, and the using of perfume if it is available."

Amr (a sub-narrator) said, "I confirm that the taking of a bath is compulsory, but as for the Siwak and the using of perfume, Allah knows better whether it is obligatory or not, but according to the Hadith it is as above."

Bukhari 13.5

At one time, the Prophet considered having his followers brush their teeth five times a day.

Narrated Abu Huraira:

Allah's Apostle said, "If I had not found it hard for my followers or the people, I would have ordered them to clean their teeth with Siwak for every prayer."

Bukhari 13.12

The end of worship for women:

Narrated Um Salama:

"The Prophet after finishing the prayer with Taslim used to stay at his place for a while."

Ibn Shihab said, "I think (and Allah knows better), that he used to wait for the departure of the women who had prayed."

Ibn Shihab wrote that he had heard it from Hind bint Al-Harith Al-Firasiya from Um Salama, the wife of the Prophet (Hind was from the companions of Um Salama) who said, "When the Prophet finished the prayer with Taslim, while facing the right then facing left), the women would depart and enter their houses before Allah's Apostle departed."

Bukhari 12.809

Narrated Aisha:

When Allah's Apostle finished the Fajr prayer, the women would leave covered in their sheets and were not recognized owing to the darkness. 

Bukhari 12.826

Instructions from the Prophet on how a woman should clean her dress if it has been soiled by menstrual discharge before she can pray in it:

Narrated Asma:

A woman came to the Prophet and said, "If anyone of us gets menses in her clothes then what should she do?"

He replied, "She should (take hold of the soiled place), rub it and put it in the water and rub it in order to remove the traces of blood and then pour water over it. Then she can pray in it."

Bukhari: 4.227

Another warning for those who would sleep in and miss the first compulsory prayer:

Narrated Samura bin Jundab:

The Prophet said in his narration of a dream that he saw, "He whose head was being crushed with a stone was one who learnt the Quran but never acted on it, and slept ignoring the compulsory prayers."

Bukhari 21.244

You can delay the Zuhr prayer if Hell is in the process of exhaling.

Narrated Abu Huraira:

The Prophet said, "In very hot weather delay the Zuhr prayer till it becomes (a bit) cooler because the severity of heat is from the raging of Hell-fire. The Hell-fire of Hell complained to its Lord saying: O Lord! My parts are eating (destroying) one another. So Allah allowed it to take two breaths, one in the winter and the other in the summer. The breath in the summer is at the time when you feel the severest heat and the breath in the winter is at the time when you feel the severest cold."

Bukhari 10.512

No pressure!

Narrated Ibn 'Umar:

Allah's Apostle said, "Whoever misses the Asr prayer (intentionally) then it is as if he lost his family and property."

Bukhari 10.527

Narrated Abu Al-Mahh:

We were with Buraida in a battle on a cloudy day and he said, "Offer the Asr prayer early as the Prophet said, "Whoever leaves the Asr prayer, all his (good) deeds will be annulled."

Bukhari 10.528

Do not let your attention wonder. A warning from both Allah and His Messenger:

Narrated Jabir bin Abdullah:

While we were praying (Jumua Khutba & prayer) with the Prophet (p.b.u.h), some camels loaded with food, arrived (from Sham). The people diverted their attention towards the camels (and left the mosque), and only twelve persons remained with the Prophet. So this verse was revealed: "But when they see Some bargain or some amusement, They disperse headlong to it, And leave you standing." (62:11)

Bukhari 13.58

Keeping count of the rakats:

Narrated Abdullah bin Umar:

Allah's Apostle used to pray two Rakat before the Zuhr prayer and two Rakat after it. He also used to pray two Rakat after the Maghrib prayer in his house, and two Rakat after the Isha prayer. He never prayed after Jumua prayer till he departed (from the Mosque), and then he would pray two Rakat at home.

Bukhari 13.59

Wait to eat onions or garlic if you want to join the believers in prayer at the Mosque.

Narrated Ibn Umar:

During the holy battle of Khaibar the Prophet said, "Whoever ate from this plant (i.e. garlic) should not enter our mosque."

Bukhari 12.812

Narrated Jabir bin 'Abdullah:

The Prophet said, "Whoever eats garlic or onion should keep away from our mosque or should remain in his house."

(Jabir bin Abdullah, in another narration said, "Once a big pot containing cooked vegetables was brought. On finding unpleasant smell coming from it, the Prophet asked, 'What is in it?'

He was told all the names of the vegetables that were in it.

The Prophet ordered that it should be brought near to some of his companions who were with him. When the Prophet saw it he disliked to eat it and said, 'Eat. (I don't eat) for I converse with those whom you don't converse with (i.e. the angels)."

Bukhari 12.814

Narrated Abdul Aziz:

A man asked Anas, "What did you hear from the Prophet about garlic?" He said, "The Prophet said, 'Whoever has eaten this plant should neither come near us nor pray with us.'"

Bukhari 12.815

Precautions were taken during wartime so that the enemies of the Muslims would not use the believers' praying time to their advantage. These safeguards became known as the "fear prayer".

Narrated Sahl bin Abi Hathma (describing the Fear prayer):

The Imam stands up facing the Qibla and one batch of them (i.e. the army) (out of the two) prays along with him and the other batch faces the enemy.

The Imam offers one Rak'a with the first batch they themselves stand up alone and offer one bowing and two prostrations while they are still in their place, and then go away to relieve the second batch, and the second batch comes (and takes the place of the first batch in the prayer behind the Imam) and he offers the second Rak'a with them.

So he completes his two-Rak'at and then the second batch bows and prostrates two prostrations (i.e. complete their second Rak'a and thus all complete their prayer).

Bukhari 59.452

Narrated Shu'aib:

I asked Az-Zuhri, "Did the Prophet ever offer the Fear Prayer?"

Az-Zuhri said, "I was told by Salim that Abdullah bin Umar I had said, 'I took part in a holy battle with Allah's Apostle in Najd. We faced the enemy and arranged ourselves in rows. Then Allah's Apostle (p.b.u.h) stood up to lead the prayer and one party stood to pray with him while the other faced the enemy. Allah's Apostle (p.b.u.h) and the former party bowed and performed two prostrations. Then that party left and took the place of those who had not prayed. Allah's Apostle prayed one Raka (with the latter) and performed two prostrations and finished his prayer with Taslim. Then everyone of them bowed once and performed two prostrations individually.'"

Bukhari 14.64

When you can pray while standing:

Narrated Nafi:

Ibn Umar said something similar to Mujahid's saying: Whenever (Muslims and non-Muslims) stand face to face in battle, the Muslims can pray while standing.

Ibn Umar added, "The Prophet said, 'If the number of the enemy is greater than the Muslims, they can pray while standing or riding (individually).'"

Bukhari 14.65

The only one who could make a prayer compulsory was Allah, but not if His Messenger did not perform it at least once.

Narrated Aisha:

Allah's Apostle used to give up a good deed, although he loved to do it, for fear that people might act on it and it might be made compulsory for them. The Prophet never prayed the Duha prayer (mid-morning prayer), but I offer it.

Bukhari 21.228

If the Prophet was not already at prayer, it was the crowing of a cock which reminded him it was time to get up and pray, again.

Narrated Al-Ashath:

He (the Prophet (p.b.u.h) ) used to get up for the prayer on hearing the crowing of a cock.

Bukhari 21.233

Praying till it hurts:

Narrated Al-Mughira:

The Prophet used to stand (in the prayer) or pray till both his feet or legs swelled. He was asked why (he offered such an unbearable prayer) and he said, "should I not be a thankful slave."

Bukhari 21.230

When the Prophet went to perform the Istisqa, the rain prayer, he took some precautions:

Narrated Abbas bin Tamim's uncle:

The Prophet (p.b.u.h) went out to offer the Istisqa prayer and turned (and put on) his cloak inside out.

Bukhari 17.119

There is no mention of a prayer to stop the rain.

Narrated Anas bin Malik:

Once in the lifetime of the Prophet (p.b.u.h) the people were afflicted with drought (famine). While the Prophet was delivering the Khutba (sermon) on a Friday, a Bedouin stood up and said, "O, Allah's Apostle! Our possessions are being destroyed and the children are hungry; Please invoke Allah (for rain)".

So the Prophet raised his hands. At that time there was not a trace of cloud in the sky. By Him in Whose Hands my soul is as soon as he lowered his hands, clouds gathered like mountains, and before he got down from the pulpit, I saw the rain falling on the beard of the Prophet.

It rained that day, the next day, the third day, the fourth day till the next Friday.

The same Bedouin or another man stood up and said, "O Allah's Apostle! The houses have collapsed, our possessions and livestock have been drowned; Please invoke Allah (to protect us)".

So the Prophet I raised both his hands and said, "O Allah! Round about us and not on us".

So, in whatever direction he pointed with his hands, the clouds dispersed and cleared away, and Medina's (sky) became clear as a hole in between the clouds. T

he valley of Qanat remained flooded, for one month, none came from outside but talked about the abundant rain.

Bukhari 13.55

How to do prayers when you are in a hurry:

Narrated Abdullah bin Umar:

I saw Allah's Apostle delaying the Maghrib prayer till he offered it along with the Isha prayer whenever he was in a hurry during the journey.

Salim narrated, "Ibn Umar used to do the same whenever he was in a hurry during the journey."

And Salim added, "Ibn Umar used to pray the Maghrib and Isha prayers together in Al-Muzdalifa."

Salim said, "Ibn Umar delayed the Maghrib prayer because at that time he heard the news of the death of his wife Safiya bint Abi Ubaid."

I said to him, "The prayer (is due)."

He said, "Go on."

Again I said, "The prayer (is due)."

He said, "Go on, till we covered two or three miles. Then he got down, prayed and said, 'I saw the Prophet praying in this way, whenever he was in a hurry during the journey.'"

Abdullah (bin Umar) added, "Whenever the Prophet was in a hurry, he used to delay the Maghrib prayer and then offer three Rakat (of the Maghrib) and perform Taslim, and after waiting for a short while, Iqama used to be pronounced for the Isha prayer when he would offer two Rakat and perform Taslim. He would never offer any optional prayer till the middle of the night (when he used to pray the Tahajjud)."

Bukhari 20.197

Why you should not pray while drowsy:

Narrated Aisha:

Allah's Apostle said, "If anyone of you feels drowsy while praying he should go to bed (sleep) till his slumber is over because in praying while drowsy one does not know whether one is asking for forgiveness or for a bad thing for oneself."

Bukhari 4:211

Don't ask someone to keep quiet and listen to the imam lest you be accused of committing an evil act.

Narrated Abu Huraira:

Allah's Apostle (p.b.u.h) said, "When the Imam is delivering the Khutba, and you ask your companion to keep quiet and listen, then no doubt you have done an evil act."

Bukhari 13.56

Do not raise your head before the imam unless you want to be known as donkeyface.

Narrated Abu Huraira:

The Prophet said, "Isn't he who raises his head before the Imam afraid that Allah may transform his head into that of a donkey or his figure (face) into that of a donkey?"

Bukhari 11.660

When the practice, a profitable one it would seem, of the imam preaching separately to the women started:

Narrated Ibn Juraij:

Ata said, "Jabir bin 'Abdullah said, 'The Prophet went out on the Day of Id-ul-Fitr and offered the prayer before delivering the Khutba, Ata told me that during the early days of Ibn Az-Zubair, Ibn Abbas had sent a message to him telling him that the Adhan for the Id Prayer was never pronounced (in the life time of Allah's Apostle) and the Khutba used to be delivered after the prayer. Ata told me that Ibn Abbas and Jabir bin Abdullah, had said, - where was no Adhan for the prayer of Id-ul-Fitr and Id-ul-Aqha."

Ata said, "I heard Jabir bin Abdullah saying, 'The Prophet stood up and started with the prayer, and after it he delivered the Khutba. When the Prophet of Allah (p.b.u.h) finished (the Khutba), he went to the women and preached to them, while he was leaning on Bilal's hand. Bilal was spreading his garment and the ladies were putting alms in it.'"

I said to Ata, "Do you think it incumbent upon an Imam to go to the women and preach to them after finishing the prayer and Khutba?"

Ata said, "No doubt it is incumbent on Imams to do so, and why should they not do so?"

Bukhari 15.78

The Musalla is the area outside a mosque mainly used for praying. On the day marking the end of Ramadan, "Day of Id" and "'Id day" in the following hadiths, some women were allowed to pray in this area. The following two hadiths appear to contradict each other as to which women were granted the privilege to stand behind the men and proclaim how great is God.

Narrated Um Atiya:

We used to be ordered to come out on the Day of Id and even bring out the virgin girls from their houses and menstruating women so that they might stand behind the men and say Takbir along with them and invoke Allah along with them and hope for the blessings of that day and for purification from sins.

Bukhari 15.88

Narrated Muhammad:

Um Atiyya said: "Our Prophet ordered us to come out (on Id day) with the mature girls and the virgins staying in seclusion."

Hafsa narrated the above mentioned Hadith and added, "The mature girls or virgins staying in seclusion but the menstruating women had to keep away from the Musalla."

Bukhari 15.91

Id-ul-Fitr and Id-ul-Adha were not just days of celebration — the first marking the end of Ramadan, the other the Hajj — those were also the days when the Prophet gave his army its marching orders, which would explain the spear. Pity the unbelievers on the receiving end.

Narrated Ibn Umar:

On the day of Id-ul-Fitr and Id-ul-Adha a spear used to be planted in front of the Prophet I (as a Sutra i.e. an object which separates the worshiper from people passing in front of him for the prayer) and then he would pray.

Bukhari 15.89

What is most interesting about the following hadith is that both the Prophet and his successor Abu Bakr, the father of Aisha, would be buried in her bedroom.

Narrated Ibn Umar:

Allah's Apostle said, "Offer some of your prayers in your houses and do not make them graves."

Bukhari 21.280

Friday was also meant to be the day of worship for Christians and Jews.

Narrated Abu Huraira:

I heard Allah's Apostle (p.b.u.h) saying, "We (Muslims) are the last (to come) but (will be) the foremost on the Day of Resurrection though the former nations were given the Holy Scriptures before us. And this was their day (Friday) the celebration of which was made compulsory for them but they differed about it. So Allah gave us the guidance for it (Friday) and all the other people are behind us in this respect: the Jews' (holy day is) tomorrow (i.e. Saturday) and the Christians' (is) the day after tomorrow (i.e. Sunday)."

Bukhari 13.1

When praying, not to do exactly as the Prophet demonstrated can be fatal.

Narrated Abdullah bin Masud:

The Prophet recited Suratan-Najm (103) at Mecca and prostrated while reciting it and those who were with him did the same except an old man who took a handful of small stones or earth and lifted it to his forehead and said, "This is sufficient for me."

Later on, I saw him killed as a non-believer.

Bukhari 19.173

Not attending prayers carries its own risks.

Narrated Abu Huraira:

The Prophet said, "No doubt, I intended to order somebody to pronounce the Iqama of the (compulsory congregational) prayer and then I would go to the houses of those who do not attend the prayer and burn their houses over them."

Bukhari 41.602

Narrated Abu Huraira:

The Prophet said, "No prayer is harder for the hypocrites than the Fajr and the Isha prayers and if they knew the reward for these prayers at their respective times, they would certainly present themselves (in the mosques) even if they had to crawl."

The Prophet added, "Certainly I decided to order the Mu'adh-dhin (call-maker) to pronounce Iqama and order a man to lead the prayer and then take a fire flame to burn all those who had not left their houses so far for the prayer along with their houses (members of the household?)."

Bukhari 11.626

An exception to the burn them in their houses rule:

Narrated Nafi:

Ibn Umar said, "Allah's Apostle said, 'If the supper is served for anyone of you and the Iqama is pronounced, start with the supper and don't be in haste (and carry on eating) till you finish it.'"

If food was served for Ibn Umar and Iqama was pronounced, he never came to the prayer till he finished it (i.e. food) in spite of the fact that he heard the recitation (of the Qur'an) by the Imam (in the prayer).

Narrated Ibn Umar: The Prophet said, "If anyone of you is having his meals, he should not hurry up till he is satisfied even if the prayer has been started."

Bukhari 11.642

What are Muslims who live in the Arctic and near-Arctic to do during the period in the summer when the sun does not set or only partially; or in the winter when it does not rise at all, or not completely?

Narrated Ibn Umar:

Allah's Apostle said, "When the (upper) edge of the sun appears (in the morning), don't perform a prayer till the sun appears in full, and when the lower edge of the sun sets, don't perform a prayer till it sets completely. And you should not seek to pray at sunrise or sunset for the sun rises between two sides of the head of the devil (or Satan)."

Bukhari 54.494

For whom it is pointless to pray:

Narrated Abdullah bin Umar:

When Abdullah bin Ubdi (bin Salul) died, his son came to Allah's Apostle and said "O Allah's Apostle, give me your shirt so that I may shroud my father's body in it. And please offer a funeral prayer for him and invoke Allah for his forgiveness."

The Prophet gave him his shirt and said to him 'Inform us when you finish (and the funeral procession is ready) call us.'

When he had finished he told the Prophet and the Prophet proceeded to order his funeral prayers but Umar stopped him and said, "Didn't Allah forbid you to offer the funeral prayer for the hypocrites when He said: 'Whether you (O Muhammad) ask forgiveness for them or ask not forgiveness for them: (and even) if you ask forgiveness for them seventy times. Allah will not forgive them.' (9:80) Then there was revealed: "And never (O Muhammad) pray for any of them that dies, nor stand at his grave." (9:84)

Thenceforth the Prophet did not offer funeral prayers for the hypocrites.

Bukhari 72.688

Another who must be denied the funeral prayer is a stillborn child. In hadith 54.430 (see chapter Babies) the Prophet said the soul enters the body of an embryo forty days after conception. This begs the question as to why a child into whom Allah has “breathed“ a soul is not entitled to a funeral prayer, even if born dead or who dies during childbirth.

Narrated Ibn Shihab:

The funeral prayer should be offered for every child even if he were the son of a prostitute as he was born with a true faith of Islam (i.e. to worship none but Allah Alone). If his parents are Muslims, particularly the father, even if his mother were a non-Muslim, and if he after the delivery cries (even once) before his death (i.e. born alive) then the funeral prayer must be offered.

And if the child does not cry after his delivery (i.e. born dead) then his funeral prayer should not be offered, and he will be considered as a miscarriage.

Bukhari 23.440

How some could tell what prayer the Prophet was uttering:

Narrated Abu Ma'mar:

We said to Khabbab "Did Allah's Apostle used to recite in Zuhr and Asr prayers?"

He replied in the affirmative.

We said, "How did you come to know about it?"

He said, "By the movement of his beard."

Bukhari 12.744

The author of the Gettysburg address should have been so honoured:

Narrated Rifa'a bin Rafi AzZuraqi:

One day we were praying behind the Prophet. When he raised his head from bowing, he said, "Sami'a-l-lahu Liman hamida."

A man behind him said, "Rabbana walaka-l hamd hamdan Kathiran taiyiban mubarakan fihi" (O our Lord! All the praises are for You, many good and blessed praises).

When the Prophet completed the prayer, he asked, "Who has said these words?"

The man replied, "I."

The Prophet said, "I saw over thirty angels competing to write it first."

[The] Prophet rose (from bowing) and stood straight till all the vertebrae of his spinal column came to a natural position.

Bukhari 12.764