Jihad in the Koran
In January 630, on the pretence that the Meccans had been supplying arms to the Banu Bakr, a tribe allied with the Meccans that had been fighting a tribe allied with the Muslims, the Banu Khuzah (the Meccans deny this and offer to compensate the Muslims for any damage the Banu Bakr may have caused, to no avail), Muhammad, at the head of an army numbering at least ten thousand, marched on Mecca which was surrounded by tribes who had converted to Islam or were allies of the Muslims.
Except for a small skirmish, the Meccans, on the advice of their commander Abu Sufyan who told them the situation was hopeless*, surrendered en masse and agreed to become Muslim, but not before obtaining a concession from Muhammad that they may continue worshipping the goddesses al-Lat, al-Uzza and Manat, the so-called Satanic Verses.
These are the exalted cranes (al-Lat, al-Uzza, and Manat) Whose intercession [with Allah] is to be hoped for.
The next day, after he has complete control of their city, Muhammad informed the Meccans that it was all the devil’s doing; that Satan had intruded on his conversations with God the previous night, and that in the morning Allah had set him straight and the verses pertaining to al-Lat, al-Uzza, and Manat were stricken from the Koran.
22:52 We have not sent a Messenger or Prophet before you but when he recited the Devil would intrude into his recitation. Yet Allah annuls what the Devil had cast. Then Allah establishes His Revelations. Allah is All-Knowing and Wise.
On the night of the city’s surrender, Muhammad discretely ordered the murder of six defenceless men (one a fellow by the name of Khatal) and four defenceless women, while pardoning the well-armed, for which he earned the unlikely moniker Prophet of Mercy.
Narrated Anas bin Malik:
Allah's Apostle entered Mecca in the year of its Conquest wearing an Arabian helmet on his head and when the Prophet took it off, a person came and said, "Ibn Khatal is holding the covering of the Ka'ba (taking refuge in the Ka'ba)."
The Prophet said, "Kill him."
Khatal was one of the Muhammad’s Zakat (charity) collectors who later abandoned Islam and returned to Mecca. Khatal sought the protection of the Ka’ba to no avail. Two of the four women put to death were singers in Khatal’s household who, years earlier as girls, had sung satirical songs about God’s Messenger. This may, in part, explain Muhammad’s pathological aversion to women singers. Other important business conducted by Muhammad that night included clearing the Ka’ba of idols. Two differing hadiths addressed how that was done:
When the Prophet entered Mecca on the day of the Conquest, there were 360 idols around the Ka'ba. The Prophet started striking them with a stick he had in his hand and was saying, "Truth has come and Falsehood will neither start nor will it reappear."
Narrated Ibn Abbas:
When Allah's Apostle arrived in Mecca, he refused to enter the Ka'ba while there were idols in it. So he ordered that they be taken out.
The pictures of the (Prophets) Abraham and Ishmael, holding arrows of divination in their hands, were carried out.
The Prophet said, "May Allah ruin them (i.e. the infidels) for they knew very well that they (i.e. Abraham and Ishmael) never drew lots by these (divination arrows).
Then the Prophet entered the Ka'ba and said. "Allahu Akbar" in all its directions and came out and not offered any prayer therein.
After the surrender, God did not object to the believers making friends with the Meccan unbelievers, most of whom were kin who would shortly be compelled to convert to Islam.
60:7 It may be that Allah will establish friendship between you and those of them who were your enemies. Allah is All-Powerful, and Allah is All-Forgiving, All-Merciful.
60:8 Allah does not forbid you, regarding those who did not fight you and did not drive you out of your homes, to be generous to them and deal with them justly. Allah surely loves the just.
60:9 Allah only forbids you, regarding those who fought you in religion and drove you out of your homes and assisted in driving you out, to take them for friends. Those who take them for friends are, indeed, the wrongdoers.
A verse from the appropriately titled surah, The Victory, celebrates the fall of Mecca.
48:27 Allah has fulfilled His Messenger’s vision in truth: “You shall enter the Sacred Mosque, if Allah wishes, in security, your heads shaved and your hair cut short, without fear.” For He knew what you did not know and gave you prior to that, victory near at hand (Khaybar).
Not long after the Meccan surrendered, Muhammad called upon all inhabitants of the Peninsula to become Muslims within four months otherwise face death or enslavement at the hands of the believers. It did not matter that they had never wished or done any harm to the Muslims. With the Meccans on board, the Prophet liquidated the remaining opposition to Islamic rule on the Peninsula, beginning with a large force that was descending on the newly surrendered city.
Spend Freely and Spend Wisely
The conquest of Mecca is only the beginning, as is evident in God’s demand that the believers “spend freely” of what He “has bequeathed.”
57:7 Believe in Allah and His Messenger and spend freely from what He has bequeathed to you. For those of you who believe and spend freely will have a great wage.
57:8 What is the matter with you? You do not believe in Allah, although the Messenger calls upon you to believe in your Lord, and He has already taken your covenant, if you are true believers?
57:9 It is He Who sends down upon His servant manifest Signs, so as to bring you out from the dark shadows into the light. Allah is indeed All-Clement and Merciful towards you.
Not all who spend freely, however, are equal in rank.
57:10 And why is it that you do not spend freely in the Cause of Allah, when to Allah belongs the heritage of the heavens and the earth? Not all those of you who spent freely before the Conquest (of Mecca) and have fought are equal. However they are higher in rank than those who spend freely and fought afterwards; and unto each Allah has promised the fairest reward. Allah is Fully Aware of what you do.
How about a loan?
57:11 Who is he that will lend Allah a fair loan, that He might double it for him; and he will have a generous wage.
* When he arrived at nightfall, Muhammad parked his army just outside the city. Countless campfires were lit to confuse the enemy as to the size of his forces. He then invited the hapless Abu Sufyan for a visit. During his time among the believers, The Prophet made sure he was constantly surrounded by thousands of heavily armed holy warriors, some on parade, other executing mock attacks in the shimmering firelight making them even more menacing, spontaneously stopping whatever they were doing to shout that blood-curdling cry, Allahu Akbar, announcing an imminent slaughter in Allah's Cause, as it does today.