Jihad in the Koran
In January 630, on the pretense that the Meccans have been supplying arms to the Banu Bakr, a tribe allied with the Meccans which has been fighting a tribe allied with the Muslims, the Banu Khuzah, (the Meccans deny this and offer to compensate the Muslims, to no avail, for any damage the Banu Bakr may have caused) the Prophet, at the head of an army numbering at least ten thousand, marches on Mecca which is now surrounded by tribes who have converted to Islam or are allies of the Muslims.
Except for a small skirmish, the Meccans, on the advice of their commander Abu Sufyan who tells them that the situation is hopeless, surrender en masse and most agree to become Muslim, but not before obtaining a concession from the Prophet, which he will repudiate the next day after he has complete control of the city, that they may continue worshipping the goddesses al-Lat, al-Uzza and Manat, the so-called Satanic Verses.
After the surrender of Mecca, God's Messenger discretely ordered the murder of six defenceless men and four defenceless women while pardoning the well-armed for which he earned the moniker Prophet of Mercy.
Narrated Anas bin Malik:
Allah's Apostle entered Mecca in the year of its Conquest wearing an Arabian helmet on his head and when the Prophet took it off, a person came and said, "Ibn Khatal is holding the covering of the Ka'ba (taking refuge in the Ka'ba)."
The Prophet said, "Kill him."
Khatal was one of the Prophet’s Zakat (charity) collectors who later abandon Islam and returned to Mecca. He was one of six men and four women whom the Prophet of Mercy ordered assassinated upon taking Mecca. Khatal sought the protection of the Ka’ba to no avail.
Two of the four women put to death were singers in Khatal’s household who, years earlier as young girls, had sang satirical songs about God’s Messenger. This may, in part, explain the Prophet’s pathological aversion to women singers.
Two differing hadiths as to what the Prophet did after the murder of Khatal was taken care of.
When the Prophet entered Mecca on the day of the Conquest, there were 360 idols around the Ka'ba. The Prophet started striking them with a stick he had in his hand and was saying, "Truth has come and Falsehood will neither start nor will it reappear.
Narrated Ibn Abbas:
When Allah's Apostle arrived in Mecca, he refused to enter the Ka'ba while there were idols in it. So he ordered that they be taken out.
The pictures of the (Prophets) Abraham and Ishmael, holding arrows of divination in their hands, were carried out.
The Prophet said, "May Allah ruin them (i.e. the infidels) for they knew very well that they (i.e. Abraham and Ishmael) never drew lots by these (divination arrows).
Then the Prophet entered the Ka'ba and said. "Allahu Akbar" in all its directions and came out and not offered any prayer therein.
After the surrender, Allah did not object to the believers making friends with the Meccan unbelievers, most of whom were their kin who would shortly be compelled to convert to Islam.
60:7 It may be that Allah will establish friendship between you and those of them who were your enemies. Allah is All-Powerful, and Allah is All-Forgiving, All-Merciful.
60:8 Allah does not forbid you, regarding those who did not fight you and did not drive you out of your homes, to be generous to them and deal with them justly. Allah surely loves the just.
60:9 Allah only forbids you, regarding those who fought you in religion and drove you out of your homes and assisted in driving you out, to take them for friends. Those who take them for friends are, indeed, the wrongdoers.
A verse celebrating the fall of Mecca from the appropriately titled surah, The Victory:
48:27 Allah has fulfilled His Messenger’s vision in truth: “You shall enter the Sacred Mosque, if Allah wishes, in security, your heads shaved and your hair cut short, without fear.” For He knew what you did not know and gave you prior to that, victory near at hand (Khaybar).
Not long after the Meccan surrender, the Prophet will call upon all inhabitants of the Peninsula to become Muslims within four months or face death or enslavement at the hands of the believers. It does not matter that they have never wished or done any harm to the Muslims.
With the Meccans on board, the Prophet liquidated the remaining opposition to Islamic rule on the Peninsula beginning with a large force that was descending on the newly surrendered city.